The clip is bound to fan the flames of conspiracy on some of the more incredulous online forums. So persistent is the chemtrail theory that it has been discussed on radio talk shows, raised by politicians, while US government agencies report calls from irate citizens demanding an explanation. The trails which arouse the most suspicion are those that remain visible for a long time, dispersing into cirrus-like cloud formations, or those from multiple aircraft which form a persistent noughts-and-crosses-style grid over a large area. Proponents of the conspiracy theory offer a variety of explanations. It is an attempt to control global warming, according to some, while others cite far more sinister goals, such as human population control, psychological manipulation, and military weapons testing. The trails, it is claimed, are to blame for health problems and respiratory illness. It is an attempt to control global warming, according to some; others cite human population control, psychological manipulation, and military weapons testing These claims took root in the Nineties, with the publication of a US Air Force research paper about weather modification.
The Age of the Earth
Slowly and painstakingly, geologists have assembled this record into the generalized geologic time scale shown in Figure 1. This was done by observing the relative age sequence of rock units in a given area and determining, from stratigraphic relations, which rock units are younger, which are older, and what assemblages of fossils are contained in each unit. Using fossils to correlate from area to area, geologists have been able to work out a relative worldwide order of rock formations and to divide the rock record and geologic time into the eras, periods, and epochs shown in Figure 1.
The last modification to the geologic time scale of Figure 1 was in the s, before radiometric dating was fully developed, when the Oligocene Epoch was inserted between the Eocene and the Miocene.
Watch video · Radiometric dating and the age of the earth; Carbon in coal suggests ages of thousands of years and clearly contradict ages of millions of years. For your young earth theory to be be correct it would contradict much of what the standard model .
This is very possible, and even likely. It is only an assumption that integral or adjacent lead could only be an end-product. In addition, there is “common lead, “which has no radioactive parent lead This could easily be mixed into the sample and would seriously affect the dating of that sample. Faul, an authority in the field, recognized it also: When the earth’s crust was formed, the primordial lead was frozen into rocks that also contained uranium and thorium in various ratios to lead.
When a uranium sample is tested for dating purposes, it is assumed that the entire quantity of lead in it is “daughter-product lead” that is, the end-product of the decayed uranium. The specimen is not carefully and thoroughly checked for possible “common lead” content, because it is such a time-consuming task. Yet it is that very uranium-lead ratio which is used to date the sample!
The same problem applies to thorium samples. Part of the uranium and its daughter products could previously have leached out. This would drastically affect the dating of the sample.
Answers to Creationist Attacks on Carbon-14 Dating
The supervillain is finally taking matters in to his own hands as he tries to obtain all six Infinity Stones. These rare artifacts are linked to six fundamental forces that control the universe. When Thanos steps out of the shadows, as he promised in the end credits scene of Avengers: Age of Ultron, he does so with only one goal in mind — collecting the six stones from those currently holding them. The Infinity War trailer appears to show the Mad Titan on the brink of achieving his goal, with only the Avengers and the forces of Wakanda standing in his way.
Nonetheless, stratigraphy and radiometric dating of Precambrian rocks have clearly demonstrated that the history of the Earth extends billions of years into the past. Radiometric dating has not been applied to just a few selected rocks from the geologic record.
Relative dating Studies of strata , the layering of rocks and earth, gave naturalists an appreciation that Earth may have been through many changes during its existence. These layers often contained fossilized remains of unknown creatures, leading some to interpret a progression of organisms from layer to layer. Lomonosov’s ideas were mostly speculative. In the Comte du Buffon tried to obtain a value for the age of Earth using an experiment: He created a small globe that resembled Earth in composition and then measured its rate of cooling.
This led him to estimate that Earth was about 75, years old. Other naturalists used these hypotheses to construct a history of Earth , though their timelines were inexact as they did not know how long it took to lay down stratigraphic layers. This was a challenge to the traditional view, which saw the history of Earth as static,[ citation needed ] with changes brought about by intermittent catastrophes. Many naturalists were influenced by Lyell to become “uniformitarians” who believed that changes were constant and uniform.
His calculations did not account for heat produced via radioactive decay a process then unknown to science or, more significantly, convection inside the Earth, which allows more heat to escape from the interior to warm rocks near the surface. For biologists, even million years seemed much too short to be plausible. In Darwin’s theory of evolution , the process of random heritable variation with cumulative selection requires great durations of time. According to modern biology, the total evolutionary history from the beginning of life to today has taken place since 3.
Huxley , attacked Thomson’s calculations, suggesting they appeared precise in themselves but were based on faulty assumptions.
The exact scientific process that led to the creation of prokaryotic life still eludes scientists today. Whether these early organisms metabolized energy through the process of photosynthesis utilizing light or by another method, such as chemosynthesis utilizing chemicals , is also unknown. The origin of life on planet Earth has long baffled the scientific community. Although many theories have been proposed, there is no consensus as to how life first originated on the Earth.
Science believes that the Earth’s early atmosphere consisted of gases such as methane, hydrogen, ammonia, and steam. These gases may have combined with electrical discharge from lightning other energy sources are also possible to produce organic compounds.
Radiocarbon dating can easily establish that humans have been on the earth for over twenty thousand years, at least twice as long as creationists are willing to allow.
The assumption that the geologic column is a base from which to calibrate the C dates is not wise. With a half-life of only years, carbon dating has nothing to do with dating the geological ages! Whether by sloppiness or gross ignorance, Dr. Hovind is confusing the carbon “clock” with other radiometric “clocks. Being ancient, the C content has long since decayed away and that makes it useful in “zeroing” laboratory instruments.
It’s just one of the tricks that have been used to make the work a little more precise. The entire geologic column is based on the assumption that evolution is true. Radiometric Dating and the Geological Time Scale: Circular Reasoning or Reliable Tools? Andrew MacRae deals with claims that the geologic column is just circular reasoning. Hovind would take the trouble to do a little reading from something other than creationist publications he would not make such an outrageous statement.
I believe he has confused the use of index fossils with evolution. One creationist editor, who is more mellow than his unfortunate statement suggests, phrased the argument thus:
Changing Views of the History of the Earth
Leibnitz reworked Descartes’s cosmogony. Protogea was published much later in An essay toward a Natural History of the Earth. Woodward came down fairly strongly for the view that the flood was an act of God that could not be accounted for by normal physical processes. He also postulated hydrological sorting to account for the ordering of fossils.
Flood geology (also creation geology or diluvial geology) is the attempt to interpret and reconcile geological features of the Earth in accordance with a literal .
The Disappearance of a Viking Greenland Colony. Our Earth is Hollow. The Greenland colony thrived for several centuries, but then as Europe became embroiled in war and the disease of the plague, the Norwegians lost contact with their Arctic colonies in Iceland and Greenland. The last ship known to have returned from their Arctic colonies to Norway was in When the Dark Ages had past and Greenland was once again rediscovered with Hans Egede establishing the first modern settlement there in , all that could be found of the original Viking settlers was their ruins and some of their animals.
The Viking colonists had apparently migrated further and further north where they found wild life and fish more plentiful, until they disappeared. In an attempt at determining where the lost Viking Greenland colony went, Lt. Navy early ‘s says he reviewed the Eskimo traditions. The Eskimos say the Vikings had migrated further and further north, then one day their men found a paradise in the north — a place the Eskimo had always known about but stayed away from because they believed it to be inhabited by evil spirits.
The Viking explorer parties had came back and had told the rest of their Greenland colony of their wonderful discovery. All promptly packed their bags, and singing songs, departed suddenly northward and never returned. The eskimo tradition is that over the ice towards the northwest, in the direction Admiral Peary sighted Crocker land and Cook sighted Bradley land, is a It lies,” they say even to this day, “in the direction of the coastal trail-route north.
Infinity War: 16 Fan Theories About Thanos (That Might Actually Be True)
Nobody agrees on exactly what that allegory is. See, [adopts the voice of a man smoking an herbal cigarette outside of a screening of Mother! Aronofsky himself has been pretty explicit about this. How else to describe the moment when Mother gets fed up at the end of the movie and lights the house on fire, other than as a bit of accelerated global warming?
Another common interpretation , and the one that has the most obvious hooks in the movie.
Evolution Encyclopedia Vol. 1. CHAPTER 7 – DATING METHODS PART 1 are still used in an attempt to postulate long ages for earth’s history: (12) Astronomical dating. In the above quotation, Spieker suggests that radiodating is worthless and only fossil strata dating theories are correct.
How long has this planet been here? Ask most Christians this question and you will likely receive a quick, self-assured answer. All would be well if you could count on receiving the same answer! However, some will very quickly tell you that the earth was created during creation week and can be no more than six to ten thousand years old. Other Christians will tell you, with just as much confidence, that the earth is 4. This is no minor discrepancy! What adds even more to the confusion is the fact that you can find both opinions within conservative evangelical circles.
You can even find both opinions within the ranks of the few Christian geologists with Ph. Let me assure you that this is just as confusing for me as it is for you. The age of the earth is a question both of biblical interpretation and scientific investigation. Unfortunately, neither Christian conservative Old Testament scholars nor Christian scientists are in universal agreement.
This topic covers a broad spectrum of issues so I am going to try and narrow the focus of the discussion.